¿Fútbol gaélico? / Gaelic football? / Pheil ghaelach?

¿Qué é o fútbol gaélico? (Tradución ó galego)

O fútbol gaélico (en gaélico peil, peil ghaelach ou caid), normalmente chamado "fútbol", "gaélico" ou "gaa", é unha variante de fútbol xogada principalmente en Irlanda. É, xunto co hurling ("guindar"), un dos dous deportes con máis espectadores en Irlanda.

O fútbol xógase por equipos de quince persoas en un campo rectangular con postes en forma de H en cada un dos dous extremos. O obxectivo principal é marcar pateando ou golpeando a bola coa man e conseguir que atravese a portería. O equipo que máis puntos teña ó final do partido gaña. Os xogadores manexan o balón polo terreo de xogo cunha combinanción de portar, facendo un só (soltando o balón e, sen deixalo caer, darlle co pé de novo de volta cara as mans), pateando e pasando coa man ós seus compañeiros.

As estatísticas amosan que este deporte foi gañando máis espectadores que calquera outro en Irlanda; os datos do ESRI indican que supón o 34% das audiencias deportivas en Irlanda, co rival máis próximo, o hurling, chegando a un 23%. 

O fútbol é un dos catro deportes gaélicos organizados pola Asociación Atlética Gaélica, a organización deportiva máis grande de Irlanda, con máis de 800.000 membros. Hai unha regra estricta sobre o non profesionalismo e o cumio deste deporte é o a final Toda-Irlanda do campionato inter-bisbarras. Crese que o xogo descende do antigo fútbol irlandes coñecido como caid, da época medieval, malia que as regras modernas non se estableceron ata 1886.

O fútbol gaélico tamén se xoga en países fóra de Irlanda, non só por membros da diáspora irlandesa. Está medrando en popularidade internacionalmente. Os equipos de Londres e Nova Iorque compiten cada ano no campionato de fútbol Toda-Irlanda, o nivel máis alto deste deporte. Un xogo híbrido, o fútbol de regras internacionais, permite partidos internacionais como as Series de Regras Internacionais entre Australia e Irlanda.

Terreo de xogo

Un campo gaélico é similar ó de rugbi pero algo máis longo. O terreo é rectangular, de 130 a 145 metros de longo e de 80 a 90 metros de largo. Hai postes con forma de H en cada extremo ó longo, compostos de dous postes, que adoitan ser de sete metros de alto, separados en 6,5 metros, e conectados a 2,5 metros por un longueiro. O mesmo campo úsase para o hurling, a GAA, que organiza os dous deportes, decidiu isto para facilitar o dobre uso. As liñas márcanse ós 13 metros, 20 e 45 dende cada liña de fondo. Os campos máis pequenos e porterías máis pequenas empréganse para categorías inferiores.

Duración

A maioría dos partidos de fútbol sénior e xuvenil duran sesenta minutos, divididos en dúas partes de trinta, agás os partidos inter-bisbarras sénior, que duran setenta minutos (dúas partes de 35). Os empates dirímense en repeticións ou en prórrogas de vinte minutos (dúas metades de 10). Para os nenos de menos de doce anos, hai unha metade de vinte ou 25 minutos nalgúns casos. O intermedio dura sobre quince minutos.

Equipos

Os equipos fórmanos quince xogadores (un porteiro, dous laterais, un zagueiro, dous carrileiros, un central, dous mediocentros, dous aleiros, un dianteiro, dous extremos e un dianteiro centro) máis quince suplentes, dos que cinco poden ser empregados. Cada xogador ten números do 1 ó 15, comezando polo porteiro, que debe vestir unha camiseta de diferente cor á dos seus compañeiros.

Posicións

Balón

Xógase cun balón de coiro composto por dezaoito paneis de coiro cosido, parecido a un balón de balonvolea, cunha circunferencia de 69 a 74 centímetros e un peso de 370 a 425 gramos cando está seco. Pode ser pateado ou pasado coa man. Un pase de man non é un golpe de calquera xeito, senón un golpe co puño pechado, empregando os cotenos.

Faltas técnicas

As seguintes son as consideradas falta técnicas:

  • Colle-lo balón directamente do chan (debe ser picado ás mans cos pés). De tódolos xeitos, no fútbol gaélico feminino, pódese coller o balón directamente.
  • Lanza-lo balón (debe ser pasado golpeándoo co puño)
  • Dar catro pasos sen soltar, botar ou facer un só co balón. (Facer un só implica patear o balón cara as mans).
  • Botar dúas veces seguidas o balón (débese facer un só polo medio)
  • Meter un gol cun pase (porén, o balón pode ser golpeado co puño a gol cando se está no aire)
  • Balón na área, unha regra controvertida:  se, no momento no que o balón entra na área pequena xa hai un xogador atacante dentro, pítase falta en ataque.
  • Cambiar de mans: pasar o palón da man dereita á esquerda ou viceversa. Legal no fútbol feminino.

Marcar

Se o balón pasa por riba do longueiro, márcase un punto e o xuíz de meta levanta unha bandeira branca. O punto pode ser conseguido pateando o balón por riba do longueiro, ou dándolle unha puñada, en cuxo caso, a man debe estar pechada no momento de golpear. Se o balón entra por debaixo do longueiro, o gol, que suma tres puntos, márcase cunha bandeira verde. O gol só se pode marcar pateando o balón ás mallas, con se pode dar unha puñada á bóla. Porén, un xogador pode darlle co puño ó balón e marcar gol se a bola vén dun pase doutro xogador ou se provén de dar no chan, no poste ou no longueiro antes da puñada. A portería deféndea o porteiro. Os puntos amósanse no formato {total de goles}-{total de puntos individuais}.

Entradas

O nivel das entradas permitidas é máis duro ca no balompé, pero menos ca no rugbi.

O contacto ombreiro con ombreiro e quitarlle o balón da man o rival está permitido, pero o seguinte é considerado falta:

  • Usa-las dúas mans na entrada
  • Empurrar a un rival
  • Golpear a un rival
  • Tirarlle da camiseta a un rival
  • Bloquear un tiro cos pés
  • Segar
  • Poñer cambadelas
  • Toca-lo porteiro cando está na área pequena
  • Loita-la bóla cando está nas mans do rival

Continuación do partido

  • O partido comeza cando o colexiado guinda o balón cara arriba entre o catro mediocentros.
  • Cando un atacante manda o balón máis aló das porterías, marcando un punto ou un gol, o porteiro debe patear o balón dende a liña de 13 metros. Tódolos xogadores deben estar máis aló da liña de 20 metros.
  • Cando un defensa manda o balón máis aló das porterías, un atacante terá un "45" (libre directo) dende o campo no lugar da liña de 45 onde se foi a bóla.
  • Logo de que o balón saia pola liña lateral, o outro equipo terá un saque de banda no lugar por onde saiu. Debe ser lanzado ó campo coas mans. O xogador que saca non pode sobrepasar a liña de banda mentres o fai.
  • Despois de que un xogador cometa unha falta, o outro equipo terá un tiro directo. Pode patea-lo balón dende o chan ou dende as mans.
  • Se un xogador sofre unha falta cando está a pasa-lo balón, o tiro libre sácase dende o lugar onde caia a bóla.
  • Logo de que un defensa cometa unha falta na área pequena, o outro equipo tirará un penalti dende o chan no centro da liña de 11 metros. Só o porteiro pode estar na portería.
  • Se varios xogadores están a loitar pola bóla e non está claro quen fixo falta antes, o árbitro debe lanza-lo balón ó aire entre os dous oponentes.

Colexiados

Un partido de fútbol é arbitrado por oito colexiados:

  • O árbitro
  • Dous xuíces de liña
  • Árbitro de banda (só para os partidos inter-bisbarras)
  • Catro auxiliares (dous en cada fondo)

O árbitro é o responsable de comezar e para-lo xogo, anotando o marcador, concedendo os tiros libres e sancionando e expulsando ós xogadores.

Os xuíces de liña son os responsables de indicar a quen corresponde sacar de banda ó árbitro.

O cuarto oficial é responsable de comprobar as substitucións e indica-lo tempo de desconto (indicado a el polo árbitro) e os xogadores serán substituídos empregando unha táboa electrónica.

Os auxiliares indican o marcador. Sinalan ó árbitro se un tiro foi: fóra (estendendo os dous brazos), un tiro da liña de 45 metros (levantando un brazo), un punto (ondeando unha bandeira branca), balón na área (brazos cruzados) ou un gol (ondeando unha bandeira verde). Unha anotación rexeitada indícase cruzando as bandeiras verde e branca.

Contrariamente á crenza popular, os colexiados non están na obriga de indicar calquera falta ó árbitro, pero se lles permite informar da conducta violenta da que sexan testemuñas e da que non se decatase o árbitro. Un liña ou un auxiliar non poden informar os árbitros das faltas técnicas como o "dobre bote" ou cando levantan de forma ilegal o balón do chan. Ese tipo de decisións só as pode tomar o árbitro principal.


What's gaelic football? (from www.wikipedia.org)

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil, Peil Ghaelach, or Caid), commonly referred to as "Football", "Gaelic", or "Gaa"[1][2][3] is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. It is, together with hurling, one of the two most popular spectator sports in Ireland.[4]

Football is played by teams of 15 on a rectangular grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end. The primary object is to score by kicking or striking the ball with the hand and getting it through the goals. The team with the highest score at the end of the match wins. Players advance the ball up the field with a combination of carrying, soloing (dropping and then toe-kicking the ball upward into the hands), kicking, and hand-passing to their team-mates.

Statistics show the game drawing significantly more spectators than any other sport in Ireland; 2005 ESRI figures indicate that it draws 34% of total attendances at sports events in Ireland, with the closest rival, hurling drawing 23%.[5]

Football is one of four Gaelic games run by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest sporting organisation in Ireland with more than 800,000 members.[5] It has strict rules on player amateurism and the pinnacle of the sport is the inter-county All-Ireland Football Final. The game is believed to have descended from ancient Irish football known as caid which dates back to medieval times, although the modern rules were not set down until 1886.

Gaelic football is also played in countries outside of Ireland,[6] often although not solely played by members of the Irish diaspora. It is increasing in popularity internationally.[6]London and New York compete in the annual All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the highest level of the game. A hybrid sport, international rules footballInternational Rules Series between Australia and Ireland. Teams from both facilitates international representative matches including the showpiece

Playing field

A Gaelic pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but considerably larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 meters long and 80–90 meters wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 7 m high, set 6.5 m apart, and connected 2.5 m above the ground by a crossbar. A net extending in back of the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts. The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage. Lines are marked at distances of 13 m, 20m and 45 m from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used under-8s, 10s, 12s and 14s.[7]

Duration

The majority of adult football and all minor and under 21 matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games which last for 70 minutes (two halves of 35 minutes). Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time (two halves of 10 minutes). The under 12s have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases. Half time lasts for about 15 minutes.

Teams

Teams consist of fifteen players[8] (a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs,a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward) plus up to fifteen substitutes, of which five may be used. Each player is numbered 1–15, starting with the goalkeeper, who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his/her teammates.

Positions

Ball

The game is played with a round leather football made of 18 stitched leather panels, similar in appearance to a traditional volleyball, with a circumference of 69-74cm (27-29'), weighing between 370-425g (13-15 oz) when dry. It may be kicked or hand passed. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.

Technical fouls

The following are considered technical fouls ("fouling the ball"):

  • Picking the ball directly off the ground (It must be scooped up into the hands by the foot). However, in ladies' Gaelic football, the ball may be picked up directly.
  • Throwing the ball (It may be "hand-passed" by striking with the fist)
  • Going four steps without releasing, bouncing or soloing the ball. (Soloing involves kicking the ball into one's own hands)[9]
  • Bouncing the ball twice in a row (It may be soloed continuously)
  • Hand passing a goal (the ball may be punched into the goal from up in the air, however)
  • Square ball, an often controversial rule: If, at the moment the ball enters the small square, there is already an attacking player inside the small rectangle, then a free out is awarded.
  • Changing hands: Throwing the ball from your right-hand to left or vice-versa. Legal in the ladies' game.

Scoring

If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. A Point can be scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or by fisting it over in which case the hand must be closed whilst striking the ball. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal, worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal can only be scored by kicking the ball into the net, you cannot fist pass the ball into the net. However, a player can strike the ball into the net with a closed fist if the ball was played to him by another player or came in contact with the post/crossbar/ground prior to connection. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format {goal total}-{point total}.

Tackling

The level of tackling allowed is more robust than in association football (soccer), but less than rugby.

Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:

  • Using both hands to tackle
  • Pushing an opponent
  • Striking an opponent
  • Pulling an opponent's jersey
  • Blocking a shot with the foot
  • Sliding tackles
  • Tripping
  • Touching the goalkeeper when he/she is inside the small rectangle
  • Wrestling the ball from an opponent's hands

Restarting play

  • A match begins with the referee throwing the ball up between the four mid fielders.
  • After an attacker has put the ball wide of the goals, scored a point or a goal, the goalkeeper may take a kick out from the ground at the 13m line. All players must be beyond the 20 m line.
  • After a defender has put the ball wide of the goals, an attacker may take a "45" from the ground on the 45 m line level with where the ball went wide.
  • After a player has put the ball over the sideline, the other team may take a sideline kick at the point where the ball left the pitch. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands. The player who is takeing the sideline kick must not pass the boundary line while takeing.
  • After a player has committed a foul, the other team may take a free kick at the point where the foul was committed. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands.
  • If a player has been fouled while passing the ball, the free kick may be taken from the point where the ball landed.
  • After a defender has committed a foul inside the large rectangle, the other team may take a penalty kick from the ground from the center of the 11 m line. Only the goalkeeper may guard the goals.
  • If many players are struggling for the ball and it is not clear who was fouled first, the referee may choose to throw the ball up between two opposing players.

Officials

A football match is overseen by eight officials:

  • The referee
  • Two linesmen
  • Sideline official/Standby linesman (inter-county games only)
  • Four umpires (two at each end)

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

Linesmen are responsible for indicating the direction of line balls to the referee.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signaled to him by the referee) and the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: wide (spread both arms), a 45 m kick (raise one arm), a point (wave white flag), square ball (cross arms) or a goal (wave green flag). A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.

Contrary to popular belief within the association, all officials are not obliged to indicate "any misdemeanours" to the referee, but are in fact only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed which has occurred without the referees knowledge. A linesman/umpire is not permitted to inform the referee of technical fouls such as a "double bounce" or an illegal pick up of the ball. Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee.

Leagues and team structure

All Gaelic sports are amateur; easing the strictness with which this is interpreted is advocated by the Gaelic Players Association.

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parish basis, with various local clubs playing to win the County Championship at various levels:

Levels
Name Description
Senior the better adult clubs
Intermediate clubs between Senior and Junior levels
Junior weaker adult clubs, from small communities
Under-21 under 21
Minor under 18
Under-age all ages from under-17 down to under-6

On a national level, the GAA county is organised on the old Irish county system,[13]Irish diaspora in London and New York. Splitting Dublin into North and South due to its enormous population has been considered, but is unlikely to happen any time soon. There are also clubs in other parts of the USA, Britain, Asia, Australasia, continental Europe and Canada. producing 34 teams representing the original 32 counties that cover the island of Ireland, plus teams representing the

Though Ireland was partitioned between two states in 1920, Gaelic sports (like most cultural organisations and all religions) continue to be organized on an All-Ireland basis.

A team of 15 players plus substitutes is formed from the best players playing at club level.

Nearly all counties play against each other in a knock-out tournament known as the All Ireland Championship.

These modified knock-out games are organised on the four Irish provinces of Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connacht.

In the past, the best team from each would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the All-Ireland Final.

A recent re-organisation now provides a 'back door' method of qualifying, with knocked out teams getting another chance to win back into the competition. This means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage.

County teams also compete in the National Football League, held every spring. The League is not as prestigious as the All-Ireland, but in recent years attendances have grown and interest, from the public and from players, has grown. This is due in part to the organisation of the league into the above format, the provision of the Division 2 final stages and the relatively new change of starting the league in February rather than November. Live matches are shown on the Irish-language TV station TG4, with highlights shown on RTÉ2.

All-Ireland Final

The final game of the inter-county series is the All-Ireland Final which takes place on the third Sunday of September at Croke Park. However, the 2005 All-Ireland final was played on the fourth Sunday of the month, due to overlapping TV coverage of the Ryder CupRTÉ. tournament by

Over the four Sundays of September, All-Ireland Finals in men's football, women's football, hurling and camogie take place in Croke Park, the national stadium of the GAA, with the men's decider regularly attracting crowds of over 80,000. Guests who attend include the President of Ireland, the Taoiseach and leading dignitaries.

Two levels of the game are played at each All-Ireland, the Senior team and the Minor team (consisting of younger players, under the age of 18, who have played their own Minor All-Ireland competition).

The winning senior county football team receives the Sam Maguire cup. The most successful county in the history of football is Kerry, with 36 All-Ireland wins, followed by Dublin, with 22 wins. 


Las reglas del fútbol gaélico en castellano


(Gracias a Gavin Hackett del Sant Vicent GAA Valencia tenéis las reglas en castellano. Descargad el archivo adjunto)


GAA reglas.doc GAA reglas.doc
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     Diagram of a Gaelic football pitch


History

Gaelic football is one of the world's oldest known sports still played today. It is one of the most played sports in Ireland and is also played in other countries. One of the first records of football in Ireland comes from 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Newcastle, County Dublin[citation needed] was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.

The Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie' — the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports.

By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably. The games had grown in popularity and were widely played.[citation needed] This was due to the patronage of the gentry.[citation needed] Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games. Games were organized between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas (Prior, 1997).

The earliest record of a recognized precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted.[10]

However even "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling (a substantial amount at the time) for those caught playing sports. It proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712.

A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, and 100 years later there were accounts of games played between County sides (Prior, 1997).

By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry, especially the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which lasted the whole of a Sunday (after mass) and was won by taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.

During the 1860s and 1870s, Rugby and Association football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby, and the rules of the (English) Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which even allowed tripping.

Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock’s Drappery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules which was adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of the association’s foundation (GAA Museum, 2001).[10]

Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) until 1887. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" (particularly English) imports. The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football — for example in their lack of an offside rule — were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, 1887. The rules of the aforementioned Commercials Club became the basis for these official (Gaelic Football) rules who, unsurprisingly, won the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Final (representing County Limerick) [11]

On Bloody Sunday in 1920, during the Anglo-Irish War, a football match at Croke Park was attacked by British forces. 14 people were killed and 65 were injured. Among the dead was Tipperary footballer Michael Hogan, for whom the Hogan Stand at Croke Park (completed in 1924) was named.

Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the 1970s[citation needed].

The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football and the question of whether they have shared origins is a matter of historical controversy. Games are held between an Irish representative team and an Australian team, under compromise rules known as International rules football.

The current President of the GAA is Christy Cooney of Youghal, County Cork.[12]

Team of the Millennium

This was a team chosen in 1999 by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in 1884 up to the Millennium year, 2000. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.



Goalkeeper

Dan O'Keeffe
(Kerry)


Right Corner Back Full Back Left Corner Back
Enda Colleran
(Galway)
Joe Keohane
(Kerry)
Seán Flanagan
(Mayo)

Right Half Back Centre Back Left Half Back
Sean Murphy
(Kerry)
J. J. O'Reilly
(Cavan)
Martin O'Connell
(Meath)


Midfield
Mick O'Connell
(Kerry)

Tommy Murphy
(Laois)

Right Half Forward Centre Forward Left Half Forward
Pat Spillane
(Kerry)
Seán Purcell
(Galway)
Seán O'Neill
(Down)

Right Corner Forward Full Forward Left Corner Forward

Kevin Heffernan
(Dublin)
Tommy Langan
(Mayo)
Mikey Sheehy
(Kerry)

 


Gaelic football clips!



The gaelic football pitch lines 



The gaelic football players' positions



The All-Ireland Champions



Team Winner Runner-up

Kerry 36 19

Dublin 23 13

Galway 9 13

Meath 7 9

Cork 6 16

Cavan 5 6

Wexford 5 3

Down 5 0

Kildare 4 5
Tipperary 4 1

Mayo 3 10

Offaly 3 3

Louth 3 3

Tyrone 3 2

Roscommon 2 4

Limerick 2 0

Armagh 1 3

Derry 1 1

Donegal 2 0
 
 
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